Home Mabuku Hor Horzopeka Mwezi Wodzikuza Wowopsa: 'Dracula' & the Undndeniable Queerness of Bram Stoker

Mwezi Wodzikuza Wowopsa: 'Dracula' & the Undndeniable Queerness of Bram Stoker

by Waylon Yordani
1,464 mawonedwe
Bram stoker dracula

Pali nthawi zina mu Mwezi Wonyada ku iHorror pomwe ndikudziwa kuti anthu andinyalanyaza. Ndiye pamakhala nthawi zina pamene ndimatsitsa zipsinjo ndikukonzekera kubwerera kumbuyo. Ndikulemba mutu wankhaniyi za Dracula-Modzi mwa mabuku omwe ndimawakonda nthawi zonse -, tinene kuti masomphenya a Kurt Russell ndi a Billy Baldwin akuvina m'mutu mwanga.

Chifukwa chake, nazi ...

Pafupifupi zaka 125 kuchokera Dracula idasindikizidwa koyamba, taphunzira zambiri za ife eni komanso za munthu yemwe analemba mwina buku lodziwika bwino kwambiri la vampire nthawi zonse, ndipo chowonadi ndichakuti, Bram Stoker anali munthu yemwe adakhala moyo wake wonse wachikulire ali wokonda amuna ena .

Onetsani A: Walt Whitman

Ali ndi zaka makumi awiri mphambu zinayi, Stoker wachichepere analemba yomwe itha kukhala imodzi mwamakalata okonda kwambiri omwe ndidawawerengera wolemba ndakatulo waku America Walt Whitman. Zinayamba motere:

Ngati ndinu mamuna amene ndimakutengani kukhala inu mukufuna mupeze kalatayo. Ngati simukutero sindikusamala kaya mumakonda kapena ayi ndipo ndikungopempha kuti muchiyike pamoto osawerenga patali. Koma ndikukhulupirira kuti mudzazikonda. Sindikuganiza kuti pali munthu wamoyo, ngakhale inu amene muli pamwamba pa tsankho la gulu la amuna anzeru zazing'ono, omwe sangakonde kulandira kalata yochokera kwa wachinyamata, mlendo, padziko lonse lapansi - munthu kukhala m'malo osalabadira zomwe mumayimba komanso momwe mumayimbira.

Stoker amapitilizabe kulankhula za chikhumbo chake cholankhula ndi Whitman monga momwe olemba ndakatulo amachitira, akumamutcha kuti "mbuye," ndikunena kuti amasilira ndikuwoneka ngati akuwopa ufulu womwe wolemba wachikulire amakhala nawo. Ndipo pomaliza akumaliza motere:

Ndi chinthu chokoma bwanji kwa mwamuna wathanzi wathanzi ndi diso la mkazi ndipo mwana akufuna kumva kuti atha kuyankhula ndi bambo yemwe atha kukhala ngati akufuna bambo, ndi mchimwene ndi mkazi kumoyo wake. Sindikuganiza kuti mungaseke, Walt Whitman, kapena kundinyoza, koma pazochitika zonse ndikukuthokozani chifukwa cha chikondi ndi chifundo chomwe mwandipatsa mofanana ndi mtundu wanga.

Palibe kulumpha kuganiza kuti Stoker amatanthauzanji ndi "mtundu wanga." Ngakhale apo, komabe, sakanatha kubweretsa kunena mawuwo, kuvina mozungulira iwo.

Mutha kuwerenga makalata athunthu ndikukambirana zambiri mwa KUFUNSA PANO. Whitman adayankhadi mnyamatayo, ndikuyamba kulemberana makalata komwe kumatha zaka zambiri mulimonse. Wa Stoker, adauza mnzake Horace Traubel:

Iye anali wachinyamata wa sassy. Ndikufuna kuwotcha kalatayo kapena ayi — sizinachitike mwa ine kuti ndichite kalikonse: kodi ndi chiyani chomwe ndinkasamala nacho kaya chinali choyenera kapena chosafunikira? anali watsopano, wowuma, waku Ireland: ndiwo mtengo wolipiridwa wolandila-ndipo ndikwanira: alandilidwa!

Zaka zingapo pambuyo pake, Stoker anali ndi mwayi wokumana ndi fano lake kangapo. Za Whitman, adalemba kuti:

Ndidampeza zonse zomwe ndimalota, kapena kumufunira: wamalingaliro akulu, wowoneka bwino, wololera mpaka kumapeto; chifundo chamunthu; kumvetsetsa ndikumvetsetsa komwe kumawonekera kuposa anthu.

Onetsani B: Sir Henry Irving

Lowetsani mphamvu yachiwiri pamoyo wa Stoker.

Mu 1878, Stoker adalembedwa ntchito ngati kampani komanso woyang'anira bizinesi ku Lyceum Theatre yomwe ili ndi anthu aku Ireland - ndipo ena anganene kuti wosewera wotchuka kwambiri padziko lonse, Sir Henry Irving. Munthu wolimba mtima, wokulirapo kuposa wamoyo yemwe amafuna chidwi cha iwo omuzungulira, sinali nthawi konse asanatenge malo okwezeka m'moyo wa Stoker. Adabweretsa Stoker pagulu la London, ndikumuyika pamsonkhano woti akumane ndi olemba anzawo ngati Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Ngakhale pali zosatsimikizika zakomwe wolemba pamapeto pake adalimbikitsidwa ndi mbiri ya Dracula-Vlad Tepes kapena nthano ya vampire yaku Ireland Abhartach - pafupifupi onse amavomereza kuti wolemba adatengera kufotokoza kwa munthuyo pa Irving komanso za munthu wina zambiri… zamphamvu… zikhalidwe.

M'chaka cha 2002 cha The American Historical Review chotchedwa "" Buffalo Bill Amakumana ndi Dracula: William F. Cody, Bram Stoker, ndi Frontiers of Racial Decay, " wolemba mbiri Louis Warren analemba:

Malingaliro ambiri a Stoker a Irving amafanana kwambiri ndi momwe amaperekera zowerengera zabodza zomwe anthu amasiku ano adanenapo za kufanana. … Koma Bram Stoker adalowanso mkati mwa mantha komanso chidani chomwe abwana ake adamuuzira, ndikuwapanga kukhala maziko a nthano zake zokometsera.

Mu 1906, chaka chotsatira atamwalira Irving, Stoker adalemba zolemba ziwiri za mwamunayo wotchedwa Zikumbukiro Za Henry Irving.

Ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti, ngakhale adagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi zisudzo kwa zaka 27, adangoyamba kulemba zolemba Dracula cha m'ma 1890 kapena apo. Ndipo akhoza kukhala munthu wachitatu, yemwe pamapeto pake akuwoneka kuti adalimbikitsa wolemba kuti alembe pepala kuti ayambe nthanoyi.

Onetsani C: Oscar Wilde

Chosangalatsa ndichakuti, chaka chomwecho Stoker adayamba kugwira ntchito ku Irving ku Lyceum Theatre, adakwatiranso Florence Balcombe, wokongola kwambiri komanso mzimayi yemwe adalumikizana naye kale Oscar Wilde.

Stoker ankamudziwa Wilde kuyambira ali ku yunivesite, ndipo analangizanso mnzake waku Ireland kuti akhale membala wa Philosophical Society. Kunena zowona, amuna awiriwa anali ndiubwenzi wapamtima, wapakatikati, ndipo mwina koposa, mwina kwazaka makumi awiri, ndipo mpata pakati pawo udayamba kukula kokha pambuyo Wilde anamangidwa pansi pa Malamulo a Sodomy a tsikulo.

M'nkhani yake "" Chilakolako Chakuthengo Chinanditenga ": Mbiri Yokondana Kwamakedzana ya Dracula," Talia Schaffer anali ndi izi:

Kuchotsa mosamala dzina la Stoker pazolemba zake zonse (komanso zosasindikizidwa) kumapangitsa owerenga kuganiza kuti Stoker samadziwa kuti Wilde alipo. Palibe chomwe chingakhale kutali ndi chowonadi… Zovuta za Stoker zitha kuwerengedwa popanda zovuta zambiri; Amagwiritsa ntchito nambala yodziwikiratu yomwe mwina idapangidwa kuti iswe. M'malemba omukhudza za Wilde, Stoker adadzaza mipata pomwe dzina la Wilde liyenera kupezeka ndi mawu monga "kuchepa," "kusadziletsa," "kuzindikira," ndi kutanthauzira kumangidwa kwa apolisi ndi olemba. Dracula ikufufuza mantha ndi nkhawa za Stoker ngati wamwamuna yemwe amakhala yekha pa nthawi yoweruza a Oscar Wilde.-Schaffer, Talia. "" Chilakolako Cham'tchire Chinanditenga ": Mbiri Yokondana Kwambiri ya Dracula." ALH 61, ayi. 2 (1994): 381-425. Inapezeka pa June 9, 2021.

M'malo mwake, anali mwezi umodzi kuchokera pamene Wilde adamangidwa pomwe Stoker adayamba kulemba Dracula. Ubalewu umakhala wosangalatsa kwa akatswiri ambiri omwe afufuza mbiri ya olemba awiriwa ndi zomwe adalemba.

Kumbali imodzi, muli ndi Wilde, yemwe analemba buku lonena za munthu wosakhoza kufa yemwe amakhala moyo wake poyera, zotsatira zake zimakhala zoyipa, ndipo adatenga nawo gawo pazokonda zilizonse zomwe akanatha. Anali tambala-woyenda modabwitsa kwambiri yemwe adamuyang'ana ndi kumuwumbatira.

Mbali inayi, muli ndi Stoker, yemwenso analemba buku lonena za munthu wosakhoza kufa. Komabe, kusafa kwa Stoker kunakakamizidwa kukhalako usiku, wobisala mumithunzi, tiziromboti tomwe timadyetsa ena ndipo pomaliza pake "anaphedwa moyenera" chifukwa cha izo.

Sizitengera kulumpha kwenikweni kuganiza kuti zolengedwa ziwirizi zikuyimira kudekha kwa olemba awo. Wilde adamangidwa, kumangidwa, ndipo pamapeto pake adasamutsidwa chifukwa chazakugonana. Stoker anali muukwati wolimba - ngati anali oyera - omwe akanapitiliza kunena kuti "ma sodomites" akuyenera kuthamangitsidwa kuchokera kugombe la Great Britain mofanana ndi andale ambiri masiku ano omwe amatukwana gulu la LBGTQ +, kuti angogwidwa ndi anzawo thalauza pansi pomwe akuganiza kuti palibe amene akuyang'ana.

Ndikulimbikitsanso kuzindikira kuti onse Wilde ndi Stoker amwalira chifukwa cha zovuta za chindoko, matenda opatsirana pogonana ku Victorian London omwe mwanjira ina amamva ngati akuyang'ana ubale wawo wina ndi mzake, koma si pano kapena apo.

M'buku lake, China chake M'magazi: Nkhani Ya Untold ya Bram Stoker, Mwamuna Yemwe Adalemba Dracula, David J. Skal akunena kuti mawonekedwe a Wilde amatha kupezeka masamba onse a Dracula, mofanana ndi mawonekedwe a kudekha kwa Wilde atapachikidwa pa moyo wa Stoker. Wilde anali mthunzi wa Stoker. Iye anali doppelganger wake yemwe analimba mtima kuchita zomwe mwamunayo sangathe kapena sangachite.

Dracula wa Bram Stoker

Dracula Choyamba Edition Bram Stoker

Kulimbana mkati mwa Stoker kuli patsamba lililonse la Dracula. Kuyesera kwake kuyanjanitsa chilakolako ndi kudziwika ndi malingaliro osatsimikizika ndipo inde, nthawi zina kudzinyadira komwe kumayikidwa ndikumuphunzitsidwa ndi gulu lomwe limapangitsa kuti kudandaula kukhale kosaloledwa kumayikidwa m'ndime iliyonse.

Wina sayenera kupatsa buku kuti liwerengedwe mwachangu kuti athe kulipeza. Pali nthawi zingapo munkhani yonse momwe kudekha, zina, ndi zodumpha zimachokera patsamba.

Ganizirani za dera la vampire pa Harker pamene Akwatibwi amamuyandikira. Amaphimba munthu ndi thupi lake lomwe, nkumati ndi iye. Kapenanso ubale wamphamvu komanso wogonjera pakati pa Dracula ndi Renfield womwe umawapangitsa kupenga ndi chidwi chofuna kutumikira?

Kudya kwa vampiric, kutulutsa magazi amoyo kudzera mwa kuluma kumalowetsa malo olowerera zachiwerewere kotero kuti ngakhale m'mafilimu oyambirira a bukuli, owongolera ndi olemba adalangizidwa kuti Count amatha kuluma azimayi kuti achotse chilichonse lingaliro la kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

M'malo mwake, munthawi ya Hays Code, njira yokhayo yomwe akanatha kuchokamo kuphatikiza chilichonse chamtunduwu chinali chifukwa chakuti Dracula anali woipa kwambiri ndipo amayenera kufa. Ngakhale apo sizimatha kulembedweratu ndipo sizingafanizidwe.

Izi, zachidziwikire, zadzetsa mibadwo yonse ya omwe amaonera makanema omwe sanawerengepo zoyambirirazo ndipo mwina sanawonepo bata lachilengedwe la Dracula. Ndiwo anthu omwe amapezeka mgulu la ndemanga nkhani ngati izi zikafalitsidwa ndikudzudzula olembawo, ponena kuti tapanga izi, ndikuti tikungoyesera kukakamiza mitu ya LGBTQ + pomwe kulibe.

M'malo mwake, ndichifukwa chake sindinanene za makanema mpaka pano. Zokambiranazi ndizokhazikika m'buku loyambirira komanso mwa munthu amene adazipanga: munthu yemwe anali pafupifupi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndipo mwina anali achiwerewere, wolemba yemwe adalimbana ndi kudziwika komanso chikhumbo yemwe adapanga nkhani yomwe siifa monga mutu wake, ndi munthu yemwe kudzipereka kwake kwanthawi yonse kwa amuna ena m'moyo wake kwawululidwa mzaka makumi atatu zapitazi.

Chidule Chomaliza

Pali mosakayikira anthu omwe adasiya kuwerenga nkhaniyi pambuyo pa gawo limodzi kapena awiri oyamba - ena sanapangepo kupitirira mutuwo. Kwa iwo omwe apirira, choyamba ndimathokoza. Chachiwiri ndikukupemphani kuti muganizire zomwe mumachita musanayankhe.

Ganizani musanafuule kuti, "Ndani amasamala?" Zachidziwikire, mwina simusamala. Zachidziwikire, izi sizingatanthauze kanthu kwa inu konse. Kulimba mtima kwanu kuganiza kuti izi zikutanthauza kuti chidziwitsochi sichingathandize aliyense padziko lapansi, komanso.

Kukhala gawo la anthu oponderezedwa nthawi zambiri kumatanthauza kuti mbiri yathu imawonongedwa kapena kukanidwa kwa ife. Anthu opanda mbiri yakale samawoneka ngati anthu konse. Timayang'aniridwa ndi kusadziwa kwathu za ife eni, ndipo iwo omwe sali m'deralo amatha kunamizira kuti ndife opatuka kwatsopano m'chilengedwe chomwe chidabadwa m'ma 1970.

Chifukwa chake, sizingatanthauze kanthu kwa inu, koma zimatanthauza kanthu kena kwa anthu amtundu wa LGBTQ + omwe nawonso amanjenjemera mafani kudziwa kuti imodzi mwamawu odziwika bwino kwambiri olembedwa nthawi zonse adalembedwa ndi munthu yemwe adagawana nawo zovuta zathu ndikulimbana ndi umunthu wake momwe ambiri a ife tiriri.

Izi ndizoyenera mu 2021, ndipo uku ndiye kuyankhulana kwa Mwezi Wonyada Wopitilirabe.

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